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Cement is a hydraulic binder, which is finely divided inorganic material (dust) in admixture with water forming a viscous mixture, which gradually solidified through hydration reactions and processes.
The word concrete comes from the Latin word "concretus" (meaning compact or condensed)
Perhaps the earliest known appearance of cement was twelve million years ago.
The Romans used concrete extensively from 300 BC to 476 AD, chronological area of over seven hundred years. During the Roman Empire, Roman concrete (or opus caementicium) made from quicklime, pozzolana and a total of pumice. Widespread use in many Roman structures, an important event in the history of architecture called - Roman Architectural Revolution, freed Roman construction from the restrictions of stone and brick material and allowed for revolutionary new designs both in terms of structural complexity and dimension.
Concrete is used for the production of architectural structures, foundations, walls of brick / block, sidewalks, bridges / pathways, highways, runways, parking structures, dams, ponds, pipes, bases for gates, fences and even boats. The concrete used in large quantities almost everywhere.
Concrete is also the basis of a large commercial industry. Globally, the ready-mix concrete industry, the largest part of this market is expected to exceed $ 100 billion in revenue by 2015.
Recycling concrete is an increasingly common method of disposing of concrete structures. Concrete rubble that once was more easily available, sent to landfills for disposal, but recycling is growing due to improved environmental awareness, governmental laws, and economic benefits.
Concrete, which must be free of trash, wood, paper and other such materials, collected from demolition sites, and after passing through a crushing machine, often along with the asphalt, bricks and stones.
Reinforced concrete includes metal reinforcements, which are removed with magnets and recycled elsewhere. The remaining pieces total sizing. Larger pieces can pass through the crusher again. Smaller pieces of concrete are used as gravel for new construction projects.
There are many concrete types that are available and are created by varying the proportions of the main constituents. In this way, or by substituting for cement and aggregate phases, the final product may be adapted to implement a variety of forms strength, density, chemical properties and heat resistances.